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Rhode Island State Law

1. General Program-At-A-Glance

1. How many local child support offices are in your state excluding agencies with cooperative agreements?
There is only one (1) IV-D office in Rhode Island.
2. What is the name of your IV-D agency?
Office of Child Support Services
3. Is your state administrative, judicial, or a combination of both? In particular, does your state primarily use judicial or administrative procedures to establish and/or enforce support orders? Please describe.
Judicial to establish an order. Combination of both for enforcement.
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4. Does your state use the following applications: EDE, CSENET, QUICK?
Rhode Island uses EDE and CSENET.
4. Does your state use the following applications: EDE, CSENET, QUICK?
Rhode Island uses EDE and CSENET.

2. Duration Of Support

1. What is the duration of support in your state? Include the age of majority when the support obligation ends in the absence of other factors. Include your state's statutory citation(s).
Eighteen (18) years of age, if the child is still in high school the order will continue, but no longer then the age of nineteen (19)
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2. If not addressed in the order, at what age is child support automatically terminated as a matter of state law? Qualify, if necessary.
No automatic termination, however, case law provides that the court loses the authority to order support beyond the jurisdiction set for in statute. See Adam v. Adam, 634A2d10933 (RI 1963)
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3. Does the date of the order determine the law that is applied to the duration of support? If yes, describe.
No
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4. Does your state law allow support to be paid beyond the age of majority under certain circumstances (for example, if the child has a disability or is in college)? If yes, describe.
Yes, the Court may order child support and education costs for children attending high school at the time of their 18th birthdate and for 90 days after graduation, but in no case beyond the age of 19, unless the child has severe physical or mental impairment still living with or under the care of a parent. See Section 15-5-16.2(b).
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5. What are your state's laws regarding the emancipation of the child that would result in early termination of the child support obligation? Describe.

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6. Does child support end if the child no longer lives with the custodial parent but does not emancipate according to state law? For example, the child graduates from high school at 17 and no longer lives with the custodial parent?
It is possible based on case law.
7. For orders that include multiple children, does your state automatically reduce the current support owed for remaining children after one of the children in the order reaches the age of majority or otherwise emancipates? If yes, describe.
No
8. Does your state provide IV-D services to establish support for a child who is no longer a minor but for whom state law provides post-majority support (for example, if the child has a disability or is in college)? If yes, please describe the specific circumstances.
Yes

3. Statute Of Limitations

1. What is your state's statute of limitations for the collection of past-due support?
None, but see Section 9-1-17 of the RI General Laws for general statute of limitations. Statutes/TITLE15/15-5/S0019.HTM
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2. What is your state's statute of limitations for the establishment of paternity/parentage? Please explain.
Four (4) years after the child reaches the age of majority per RIGL 15-8-6.
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3. Is dormancy revival/renewal possible? If yes, under what circumstances and for how long?
No
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4. Support Details

1. What guideline type or method does your state use to calculate child support (for example, Income Shares Model, Percentage of Income Model, Melson Formula)?
Income shares model
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2. Does your state have any statute(s) addressing interest on arrears? If yes, indicate the amount of interest charged, any related conditions, and the statutory citation.
Yes, 1% per month on the unpaid principle balance. Also, the Court may relieve an individual of the obligation to interest upon showing good cause per Section 15-5-16.5 of RIGL
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3. Does your state's IV-D agency calculate interest on arrears? If yes, indicate the amount of interest charged and any related conditions.
Yes, 1% per month on unpaid balance
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4. Does your state charge interest on retroactive support? If yes, indicate the amount of interest charged and any related conditions.
Yes, 1% per month on unpaid principle balance, however, the Court may relieve an individual of the obligation to pay interest upon a showing of good cause. Also no interest is charged on past education and necessary support arising from a paternity action under Section 15-8-4 of RIGL
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5. Will your state enforce a medical debt for any uninsured portion? If yes, under what circumstances?
Yes, if provided in a court order. Proper prior notice to the obligor of the medical debt in the form of bills and evidence of payment. Proof of notice followed by a refusal or non-payment.
6. If your state has issued an order, and another IV-D agency asserts that the person/entity entitled to receive child support payments has changed from the person/entity designated in your state's order (due to a change in placement or foster care status), what does your state require in order to change the person/entity entitled to receive payments?
Yes
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6.1. Does it matter if the child receives TANF or Medicaid-only? If so, explain.
If the custodial parent receives TANF they must cooperate with the IV-D agency to address support and medical in a court order, if the case is Medicaid only the custodial parent may opt to only have medical addressed in the order.
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7. Does your state require that a custodial party, who is not one of the biological parents, have legal custody of a child before enforcing an order for support that was issued to the biological parents as the parties for non-public assistance cases?

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8. Does your state IV-D agency give the noncustodial parent credit toward child support for Auxiliary Benefits received directly by the custodial parent on behalf of a child as a result of the noncustodial parent's Social Security Retirement, Survivors, or Disability Insurance (RSDI) benefit?
Yes
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9. Does your state abate support? If yes, explain the circumstances and provide your statutory citation.

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5. Paternity/Parentage

1. Does your state law require custody and visitation to be addressed at the time of paternity/parentage establishment? If yes, please describe and provide the statutory citation.
No
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2. What is the percentage of probability for genetic testing that creates a rebuttable or conclusive presumption of paternity?
97% conclusive presumption
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3. What is the state law citation that makes paternity acknowledgment conclusive? Please describe (if appropriate).
See Section 15-8-11 Rhode Island General Laws.
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4. Does marriage constitute a rebuttable presumption of paternity/parentage without exceptions? Please describe and provide your statutory citation.
Yes, A party would need to file with Rhode Island Family court, standard of evidence is clear and convincing.
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5. Does the father's name on the birth certificate constitute a conclusive presumption of paternity? Please provide your state citation. If no, please describe.
No, rebuttable presumption may be rebutted by a court decree.
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6. Does your state have any other paternity/parentage-related presumptions? If yes, please describe.
Yes, see Section 15-8-3, Rhode Island General Laws.
7. What, if any, is the agency name and link for your state's putative fathers' registry?
No agency
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8. What documents regarding paternity can your state's IV-D agency provide to other IV-D agencies? Are there any charges to the requesting IV-D agencies?
Birth records from the state's vital records office. State agency does not pay a fee.
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9. Does your states bureau of vital statistics charge any fees to other states or private individuals for requesting searches, paternity/parentage documents, and data?
No fee for any State agency.
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9.1. Describe any circumstances under which these fees may be waived?

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10. Is common-law marriage currently recognized in your state? If yes, describe the standard that defines common-law marriage and the date the standard went into effect.
Yes. In case law from 1926 to date, standard reman the same. For there to exist a common-law marriage the court must; 1)find a capacity to marry;2) Evidence that both parties intended to enter into a spousal relationship;3)Conduct of the parties must be such that it would lead the community to believe they were married;4)Elements of intent and belief are demonstrated by inference from cohabitation; declarations, reputation among kindred and friends; and other competent circumstantial evidence.
11. If there was a prior common-law standard in your state that is no longer in effect, what were the dates that standard was in effect? Describe the standard.
12. If there is more than one child with the same custodial party and the same alleged father, should an initiating jurisdiction send one intergovernmental packet to your state (with a separate Declaration in Support of Establishing Parentage forms for each child) or a separate intergovernmental packet for each child?
One intergovernmental packet with separate Declaration in Support of Establishing Parentage forms for each child.

6. Support Order Establishment

1. Does your state use an administrative, judicial, or a combined process to establish a support obligation?
Judicial
1.1 If your state can establish both administratively and judicially, under what circumstances would your state use the administrative process? Please provide the statutory citation for your state's administrative procedures.

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1.2. Under what circumstances would your state use the judicial process? Please provide the statutory citation for your state's judicial procedures.
All circumstances.
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2. When setting support using your state's guidelines, whose income is considered in addition to the noncustodial parent's (for example, custodial parent, spouse, child)?
Custodial parent if there is a legal duty of support. Financial resources of child may be considered by Court. A new spouse, only, if they have a child in common and the obligor is to be given a credit for support that child.
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2.1. What documentation is required as proof/evidence of this information?
3. What criteria for rebutting your presumptive guidelines have been established in your state?
The Court has the discretion to deviate from the guidelines. No set criteria.
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4. Will your state establish support orders for prior periods of support? If yes, please describe (for example, from the birth of the child, from date of separation, prenatal expenses, five years retroactive).
RI will establish past liabilities in a paternity establishment action. RI will enter an order retroactive if there is a pending motion/complaint/petition for support and the obligor had notice under court rules. In paternity cases, six (6) years prior to the filing of the paternity complaint. Also, may
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4.1. What information or documentation does your state require to proceed with establishing support for prior periods?
Proof of income for six (6) years and all bills for above.
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4.2. Will your state allow a petition for support for a minor child when the only issue is retroactive support?
No
4.3. If there are limitations upon your state's ability to establish support for prior periods, specify those limitations.
Six (6) years prior; only in paternity cases. In support-only actions, only to the date of service on the obligor.
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5. Does your state require that a custodial party, who is not a biological parent, have legal custody of a child before establishing an order for support when public assistance is being expended?
No
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5.1. What about when public assistance is not being expended?
No
6. When your state has issued an order that reserves support, and now child support should be ordered, does your state require establishment or modification?
Establishment
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7. When there is an existing support order between the parents of a child and the child's residence changes from one parent to the other, does your state require that the new custodial parent obtain legal custody before child support is addressed? Please describe.
No
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7. Income Withholding

1. What are specific sources of income not subject to withholding?
Veterans benefits, SSI and any income exempted by federal law.
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2. Does your state law adopt the federal Consumer Credit Protection Act (CCPA) income withholding limits? Please provide the statutory citation.
Yes
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2.1. Does your state have policies or procedures allowing the agency to use lower limits than the CCPA?

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2.2. What are the withholding limits for non-employees?

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3. What is the maximum fee for the administrative cost that an employer may charge for processing income withholding orders? (45 CFR 303.100 (e)(iii).
Two (2) dollars per withholding.
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4. Does your state charge any fees to the noncustodial parent that the employer must withhold and remit to the state? If yes, please explain.

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5. Is an employer required to begin withholding after the date of service, receipt, or mailing of an income withholding order?
Upon receipt
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5.1. How many days following the first pay period that occurs after service, receipt, or mailing of an income withholding order is an employer required to begin withholding?
Seven (7) days
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6. When must an employer remit amounts withheld from an employee's pay?
Payment must be remitted with in seven (7) days of the date the income was paid or payable to the obligor.
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7. What are your state's sanctions for employers for not implementing income withholding?
Court action/contempt.
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7.1. What are the penalties to an employer for failure to remit payments withheld?
Personally liable for the amount of income, costs, interest and attorneys fees.
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8. Does your state allow other jurisdictions to send income withholding orders for unemployment insurance (UI) benefits directly to your state's UI agency? If yes, please explain your process and include any additional required documents.
No
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8.1. If no, what is your state's process to aid the other jurisdictions in withholding UI benefits? Please describe and include the required documents.
A UIFSA registration packet is required.
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9. Does your state allow other jurisdictions to send income withholding orders directly to a noncustodial parent's financial institution in your state? If yes, please explain your process and include any additional required documents.

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9.1. If no, what is your state's process to aid the other jurisdiction in collecting from a financial institution? Please describe and include the required documents.
10. How does a noncustodial parent contest an income withholding in your state?
The obligor must contest in writing to Court within fourteen (14) days of mailing of notice of income withholding. See Section 15-16-5 RIGL
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11. How does your state allocate payments when there is more than one claim against the noncustodial parent's income? Should the payment be divided equally or pro-rated among the cases? (See 45 CFR 303.100(a)(5).)
First come, first serve priority. The employer would have to follow the federal Consumer Credit Protection Act.
12. When calculating disposable income for child support purposes, what are the mandatory deductions from gross income required by state law, such as union dues or medical insurance premiums?

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13. When does your state require the employer to send notice of an employee's termination?
Yes, within thirty (30) days.
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14. When your state is enforcing an order and receives payment through income withholding that is not enough to cover the full amount ordered, how does your state apply the payment to the types of support (for example, current, arrears, medical, spousal support, other)? Please describe and provide the statutory citations, if appropriate.
Federal distribution rules are applied.
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8. Distribution

1. Does your state pass through collections (and disregard collections for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) eligibility purposes) in current assistance cases? If yes, provide the amount and explain.
The first $50.00 processed as disregard collections.
2. Does your state participate in the pass-through in former assistance cases? If yes, provide the date and explain.
No
3. In former assistance cases, are federal income tax refund offset payments applied to families first (DRA distribution) or state arrears first (PRWORA distribution)?
State arrears first (PRWORA distribution)
4. How does your state distribute payments when the noncustodial parent has arrears due to your state and another state?
Prorate the payments and follow the federal distribution rules.
4.1. If there are no arrears due to your state, how does your state distribute payments when the noncustodial parent has arrears due to multiple states?
Prorate the payments and follow the federal distribution rules.
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9. Enforcement

1. What data matches (for example, financial institution, state lottery) and enforcement remedies are available through Automated Administrative Enforcement in Interstate Cases (AEI) in your state? (See AT-08-06: Implementing Section 466(a)(14) of the Social Security Act, High-Volume, Automated Administrative Enforcement in Interstate Cases.)
CSLN, FIDM, and lottery are all automated.
2. What criteria must be met, and in addition to Transmittal #3, what documentation does your state require to proceed with an AEI request?
Transmittal #1 and a petition.
3. What are your state's criteria for reporting a noncustodial parent's child support information to credit bureaus?
After the first 30 days of non payment a notice is sent to the NCP, if after the following 30 days the NCP does not respond the case is reported to the credit bureaus.
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4. To which credit bureaus does your state report a noncustodial parent's child support information?
Equifax, Trans Union and TRW
5. Is the method for credit bureau reporting judicial, administrative, or both?
Administrative
6. Can a noncustodial parent who no longer has a past-due account have the report removed from the credit bureau? If so, what must the noncustodial parent do?"
Yes, OCSS has access to e-Oscar. The NCP would provide information that would justify the removal
7. When your state is the responding state, does it submit past-due cases to OCSE for federal administrative offset? If yes, what is the minimum required past-due amount?
Yes
8. When your state is the initiating state, does it submit past-due cases to OCSE for federal administrative offset? If yes, what is the minimum required past-due amount?
No
9. When your state is the responding state, does it submit past-due cases to OCSE for insurance match? If yes, what is the minimum required past-due amount?
No, OCSS works with CSLN for insurance matches.
10. When your state is the initiating state, does it submit past-due cases to OCSE for insurance match? If yes, what is the minimum required past-due amount?
No, OCSS works with CSLN for insurance matches.
11. When your state is the responding state, does it submit past-due cases to OCSE for MSFIDM? If yes, what is the minimum required past-due amount?
Yes
12. When your state is the initiating state, does it submit past-due cases to OCSE for MSFIDM? If yes, what is the minimum past-due amount?
No
13. When your state is the responding state, does it submit past-due cases to OCSE for passport denial?
Yes
14. Are the financial institution attachment procedures in your state judicial, administrative, or both?
Administrative
15. Are there specific account types exempt from the administrative financial institution attachment process in your state? If yes, which account types are exempt?

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16. Is the financial institution attachment process in your state centralized and/or automated?
Automated
17. What are the criteria to attach an account in a financial institution in your state?
Arrears of at least $500.00
18. Does your state's law require financial institutions doing business in your state to accept enforcement actions directly from other states? If yes, provide the statutory citation. Please explain.

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19. If there are no statutory criteria required to attach an account, describe the process for requesting a financial institution attachment from another child support agency (for example, a Transmittal #3) and list additional documentation required.
20. Does your state's income withholding definition include amounts in financial institutions?

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21. Does your state require sending a notice of intent to the noncustodial parent when attaching an account in a financial institution? Who notifies the noncustodial parent - the state, the financial institution, or both?

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22. How long does the financial institution have to hold funds before sending the noncustodial parent's assets to your child support agency?

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23. Does your state law or policy require the financial institution and/or state to hold the attached assets during the challenge or appeal time frame? If yes, provide the statutory citation and time frames.

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24. What amount or percentage of the noncustodial parent's financial assets are eligible for attachment? Is this different for joint accounts? Please explain.

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25. What are the criteria for a noncustodial parent and/or joint account holder to contest a financial institution attachment?

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26. Does your state have procedures to liquidate non-liquid assets (for example, stocks, bonds, etc.)? If yes, provide the statutory citation and the procedures to follow.

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27. What are your state's criteria for driver's license revocation/suspension for nonpayment of support?

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28. What are your state's criteria for driver's license restoration/reinstatement, including hardship exemptions?
29. Does your state allow temporary or conditional driver's licenses? If yes, what are the criteria?
30. What are your state's criteria for professional license revocation/suspension for nonpayment of support? Specify the professional license types.
31. What are your state's criteria for professional license restoration/reinstatement, including hardship exemptions?
32. Does your state allow temporary or conditional professional licenses? If yes, what are the criteria?
33. What are your state's criteria for recreational license revocation/suspension for nonpayment of support? Specify the recreational license types.
34. What are your state's criteria for recreational license restoration/reinstatement, including hardship exemptions?
35. Does your state allow temporary or conditional recreational licenses? If yes, what are the criteria?

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36. What are the criteria for initiating/filing a lien in your state?

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37. Is the lien process in your state primarily judicial, administrative, or both? Please describe.
38. Does your state enforce property seizure and sale? If so, is this process primarily judicial, administrative, or both? Please describe.

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39. Does your state have a state income tax refund offset as an enforcement remedy? If yes, describe whether the process for this remedy is primarily judicial, administrative, or a combination.
40. Does your state intercept lottery or other types of gaming/gambling winnings in your state? If so, what kind of winnings are included?
40.1. If yes, is this enforcement judicial, administrative, or both?
41. What other administrative enforcement procedures are available in your state that are not otherwise described in the IRG?
42. What other judicial enforcement procedures are available in your state that are not otherwise described in the IRG?

10. Modification And Review/Adjustment

1. How frequently does your state conduct order reviews in IV-D cases (for example, every year or every three years)? (See 45 CFR 303.8.)

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2. What is your state's modification procedure? Briefly describe.

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3. What are the criteria for modification under your state's guidelines (for example, a change that is more than $50 or 20% upward or downward from the current amount ordered)?

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4. Which of the following criteria for demonstrating a change in circumstances apply for modifying an order?

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4.1. The earnings of the noncustodial parent have substantially increased or decreased.
4.2. The earnings of the custodial parent have substantially increased or decreased.
4.3. The needs of a party or the child(ren) have substantially increased or decreased.

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4.4. The cost of living has changed.
4.5. The child(ren) has extraordinary medical expenses not covered by insurance.
4.6. There has been a substantial change in childcare expenses.
4.7. What other criteria does your state use for demonstrating a change in circumstances for modifying an order?

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5. Does your state have a cost of living adjustment (COLAs) for orders? If yes, what index does your state use? (See 45 CFR 303.8(b)(1)(ii).)
6. After learning that a parent who owes support will be incarcerated for more than 180 calendar days, does your state elect to initiate a review of an order without the need for a specific request, i.e., automatically? (See 45 CFR 303.8(b)(2).)

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11. Lump Sum Payments

1. What is your state's definition of a lump sum, if it has one? Provide the statutory citation. (Note: States may define "lump sum" more broadly than only employer- related lump sums.)

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2. Does your state law require employers to report lump sum payments? If yes, provide the statutory citation or rule.

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3. How does your state attach different types of lump sum payments? For example, does your state use the OMB-approved income withholding order for employer-issued bonuses, a lien, and levy notice for workers' compensation (if workers' compensation is considered a lump sum payment in your state), etc.?

12. Cost Recovery And Fees

1. Does your state elect to recover costs in excess of any fees collected to cover administrative costs in your child support state plan? (See section 454(6) of the Social Security Act and 45 CFR 302.33(d).) If yes, does your state collect excess actual or standardized costs on a case-by-case basis? Please describe.
1.1. If yes, does your state recover costs from the custodial parent or the noncustodial parent? (Note: No costs can be assessed against a foreign custodial parent applying through a Central Authority in a Hague Convention country, a foreign reciprocating country, or a foreign country with state-level reciprocity.)
2. Does your state recover costs on behalf of an initiating state that has elected to do cost recovery? If yes, describe.
3. How does your state impose and collect the mandatory $35 annual fee (after collecting the first $550)? This fee is applicable in IV-D cases in which individuals who never received IV-A assistance are receiving IV-D services. (See 45 CFR 302.33(e).) See options below.
3.1. Is it retained by the state from support collected?
3.2. Is it paid by the individual applying for child support services?
3.3. Is it recovered from the noncustodial parent?
3.4. Is it paid by the state out of its state funds?

13. Insurance Match

1. Does your state have legislation requiring insurance companies to work with child support agencies to identify claimants who owe past-due child support? Describe the requirements and provide the statutory citation. How does your state allocate payments when there is more than one claim against the noncustodial parent's income? Should the payment be divided equally or pro-rated among the cases? (See 45 CFR 303.100(a)(5).)

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2. What criteria must a noncustodial parent meet to be eligible for your states participation in the federal insurance match program?
3. What process does your state use to intercept insurance payments?

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4. How does another state initiate and intercept collections from your states workers compensation agency?

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5. Does your state participate in the Child Support Lien Network or CSLN (which provides insurance match services)?

14. Family Violence

15. CSENet

1. When your state is the initiating state, does it send a Child Support Enforcement Network (CSENet) case closure transaction to let the responding state know your state has closed its case (including the reason for closure) and/or the responding state's intergovernmental services are no longer needed? (MSC P GSC15; 45 CFR 303.7(c)(11).)
2. When your state is the responding state, does it send a CSENet case closure transaction to notify the initiating state that its case is closed based on one of the following reasons: (MSC P GSC16)? Initiating state failure to take an action essential for the next steps? (45 CFR 303.11(b)(17).) The initiating state requested the responding state to close the case? (45 CFR 303.7(d)(10).)
3. When your state is the initiating state, does it send a CSENet case closure transaction to notify the responding state that it must stop any income withholding orders or notices and close the intergovernmental case? (MSC P GSC17; 45 CFR 303.7(c)(12).)
4. When your state is the responding state, does it send a CSENet case closure transaction to notify the initiating state that, per its request, the case is closed, and your state has stopped its income withholding order? (MSC P GSC18; 45 CFR 303.7(d)(9).)
5. Does your state send CSENet transactions to request interest information? (MSC R GRINT)
6. Does your state send CSENet transactions to provide another state with interest and arrears information? (MSC P GSTAI)

16. Copies Of Orders And Payment Records

1. What are the procedures and associated costs for obtaining a certified copy of a court order?

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2. What are the procedures and associated costs for obtaining a certified payment record?

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17. Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA)

1. What is the statutory citation for your state's enactment of UIFSA?

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2. How does your state define the tribunal (See UIFSA 103)?

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3. How many copies or sets of documents does your state need for an intergovernmental case referral that is not sent electronically?
4. Does your state require initiating states to send intergovernmental forms in a one-sided format (when sending paper copies)?

18. International - Reciprocity

1. With which foreign countries or other jurisdictions (such as Quebec) does your state have state-level reciprocity for child support? (Do not include federal foreign reciprocating or Hague Convention countries.)
2. Does your state exercise its option for enforcement of spousal-only orders for a foreign reciprocating country, a Hague Convention country, or a foreign country with which your state has state-level reciprocity? (See section 454(32)(B) of the Social Security Act.)
3. Does your state agency accept direct applications for services from individuals residing outside the United States (See UIFSA 307 - Alternative A), or does your state's law allow discretion in accepting these applications (See UIFSA 307 - Alternative B)?

19. International Information For Hague Convention Countries

1. When a Hague Convention country seeks registration of a Convention support order in your state, does your state allow the country to send an abstract (or summary) of the order on the Hague Abstract of a Decision form in lieu of the complete text? (See UIFSA 706(b) (1).)

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2. Does your state send and receive pleadings and documents electronically in international cases? If yes, specify the types of pleadings and documents your state can send and receive electronically.
3. What methods of personal service does your state use?
4. When establishing a child support order, what can be included as add-ons to the child support guideline amount? Please provide the relevant statutory or case law citation. (See also question 1 under Support Details.)

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5. Does your state encourage amicable solutions between parents to promote voluntary payment of support, such as the use of mediation, conciliation, or similar consent processes? If yes, describe.
6. What circumstances will cause your state to end child support before the normal duration?

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20. International Payments

1. How does your state disburse child support payments to foreign reciprocating and Hague Convention countries when your state is the responding state in a case?
2. What actions does your state take to reduce the costs and fees associated with international payment processing?
3. Does your state accept electronic payments from foreign reciprocating or Hague Convention countries in international cases? If so, provide payment instructions.

21. Tribal Non IV-D

1. Has your state established cooperative arrangements with any Indian tribes or tribal organizations that don't have a tribal IV-D program?
1.1. If yes, list the tribes and identify services provided, if less than full services.

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2. Does your state have any IV-D attorneys licensed to practice in the courts of Indian tribes or tribal organizations that don't have tribal IV-D programs?